Censored connection between fluoridation of public waters and the Manhattan Project
(Healingtalks) The following information comes from an article by Chris Bryson and Joel Giffiths which was commissioned by Christian Science Monitor in 1997 but was suppressed and had to be published in Waste Not’s September 1997 issue. The article took a year of investigative reporting to uncover the sordid and shocking history of not merely a link, but the coordinated orchestration of a fluoride experimentation on the public by the Pentagon to sell the safety of fluoride, the prime waste product of the Manhattan Project which was being threatened by lawsuits. Dentists were then shamelessly given information that was falsified to solicit their support for making fluoride not only seem relatively harmless, but actually one of the great health boom of the century. If only George Orwell had known of such a ploy in writing his classic book, 1984, about mind bending Truthspeak.
Here are some of the highlights which I have condensed to less than half the length of the original text and bullet-organized so that the information is more easily synopsized:
- Initial Promotion of Fluoride Oral Use – It may seem coincidental that since World War II and the construction of the first atomic bomb, U.S. public health leaders started to promote low doses of fluoride are being safe and good for our teeth. Hundreds of once-secret documents obtained by the authors, declassified for the Manhattan Project, now can help us question that claim.
- Fluoride was the major toxic chemical residue of the US atomic bomb project. Vast amounts of fluoride were needed, millions of tons, to make uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. One of the most highly toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride emerged as the main chemical health hazard of the U.S atomic bomb program–for employees and for the surrounding ecology and communities.
- Original claims for the consumption safety of fluoride came from A-bomb scientists. They were ordered to generate “evidence useful in litigation,” as legal suits were potentially mounting against defense contractors for fluoride harm and which threatened the viability and continuance of the A-bomb programs. The first such lawsuits were over fluoride, not over radiation as documents reveal.
- Censored Research Given by Atomic Energy Commission to Dentists - A-bomb researchers led the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoridating drinking water in Newburgh, New York between 1945 and 1956. They secretly gathering to analyzed blood and tissue samples in Newburgh and even hid the fact that they were secretly working for the Pentagon. Any results which showed harmful effects were intentionally censored out by the Atomic Energy Commission, and before being published in the Journal of the American Dental Association, in effect, shamelessly deceiving the dental community.
- In a conflict of interest, “fluoride safety studies” were conducted by A-bomb scientists at the University of Rochester to “prove” fluoride was safe to consume. This was the notorious site for human radiation experiments by the identical scientists who injected plutonium into patients, as brought out by Pulitzer-Prize winning investigative reporting. The fluoride studies had the same mind-set, an unconsented subjecting of a human population to an environmental hazard in the name of nation security. The declassified documents show that much of the original “proof “that low-dose fluoride is safe for children’s bones came from the U.S. bomb program scientists who had a conflict of interest in conducting and analyzing the experiments.
- Buried Information - “Information was buried,” concludes Dr. Phyllis Mullenix, former head of toxicology at Forsyth Dental Center in Boston. Her 1990′s animal studies, reluctantly conducted as she thought fluoride was safe, showed fluoride was a neurotoxin which harms the central nervous system and brain, even at tiny doses which bio-accumulate. This now has been confirmed by dozens of other studies. In her time, however, Mullenix was astonished to discover fluoride’s effects on the human brain had never been studied. She then applied for a grant from the federal NIH program and was turned down, along with being soundly rebuffed for doing such unapproved research. Declassified documents of the A-program indicate through a memo dated April 29, 1944 of Manhattan Project that, “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect…. It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative factor.” The memo was stamped secret and was addressed to the head of the project ‘s medical section,Colonel Warren. Another memo asked to do further research, being concerned about a significant impact on employees having hampered brain functions. The actual proposal for the experiments is still missing the U.S. National Archives and is “probably still classified,” said Charles Reeves, chief librarian of the Atlanta branch of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration where the memos were. Mullenix believes the Manhattan Project went through with CNS studies, worried about its workers, and then buried the results to avoid a legal and public relations scandal.
- Dr. Harold C. Hodge’s role – The author of the 1944 CNS research proposal was none other than Dr. Harold C. Hodge, chief of fluoride toxicology studies for the Manhattan Project. Half a decade later, Dr. Mullenix was introduced to Hodge, who now was a supposed world authority on fluoride safety. Hodge never mentioned his CNS work for the Manhattan Project.” The “black hole” riled Mullenix. “There is so much fluoride exposure now, and we simply do not know what it is doing,” she says. “You can’t just walk away from this.”
- Fluoride and National Security – In 1944, a pollution incident occurred at E.I. du Pont du Nemours Company in Deepwater, New Jersey. The factory was producing millions of pounds of fluoride for the Manhattan project, racing to generate a A-bomb.The farms downstream reported crops were blighted, and that “something is burning up the peach crops around here.” Poultry died after an all-night thunderstorm. Farm workers sometimes vomited after eating the produce they had picked. Their horses looked sick and cows were too crippled to stand up and graze. The account was confirmed in taped interviews. Once-secret documents show federal government officials was upset by what was happening in New Jersey and the lawsuits that followed, as indicated in the memos between Hodge and his chief, Colonel Stafford L. Warren. Secret meetings were convened in Washington, with compulsory attendance by scientists and officials from not only the Manhattan Project but the U.S War Department, the FDA, the Agriculture and Justice Departments, the U.S Army’s Chemical Warfare Service, other departments and du Pont lawyers. Declassified memos reveal a secret mobilization to defeat the New Jersey farmers’ lawsuits. They then sought to make “scientific investigations to obtain evidence which may be used to protect the interest of the Government.”
- Why the national-security emergency over New Jersey farmer lawsuits? In 1946 the US had begun full-scale production of atomic weapons and did not want to jeopardize this program, crucial for U.S leadership of the postwar era. The New Jersey fluoride lawsuits were seen as a major national security threat. “The specter of endless lawsuits haunted the military,” writes Lansing Lamont in his acclaimed book about the first atomic bomb test, “Day of Trinity.” The fear was that “If the farmers won, it would open the door to further suits, which might impede the bomb program’s ability to use fluoride,” said Jacqueline Kittrell, a Tennessee lawyer specializing in such cases. She added, “The reports of human injury were especially threatening, because of the potential for enormous settlements — not to mention the PR problem.” The PR problem also haunted Dupont. If an embargo of farm products occurred in the region, they might be held responsible for the entire economic loss.
- Dr. Harold Hodge’s “solution” – In a secret Manhattan project memo, a solution to the public relations problem was suggested by Dr. Harold C. Hodge. He then wrote to the Medical Section chief, Col. Warren: “Would there be any use in making attempts to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the part of residents of Salem and Gloucester counties through lectures on F toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of F in tooth health?” Such lectures were soon conducted for New Jersey citizens and the rest of the country during the Cold War. The New Jersey farmers’ lawsuits were impeded by the US government’s suppression of how much fluoride du Pont had vented into the atmosphere during the war. “Disclosure… would be injurious to the military security of the United States,” wrote Manhattan Project Major C.A Taney, Jr. The farmers were pacified with negligible financial settlements, though the Giordano family soon suffered from bone and joint problems. Though the case was settled favorably for the government by covering up evidence, it led to intensive efforts to study fluoride in human tests in order to help the government fight future lawsuits. A secret 1945 memo from Manhattan Project Lt. Col. Rhodes to General Groves stated: “Although there are no pending suits…the University of Rochester is conducting experiments to determine the toxic effect of fluoride.” Much of the “proof” of fluoride’s safety in low doses came from the University of Rochester labs, conducted in anticipation of future legal attacks.
- Purpose of Program F – The purpose was not at all about helping children’s teeth or reducing their cavities. The program was about insulating the US government from litigation and related public relations crises if more fluoride releases were likewise as toxic. That purpose is spelled out in a classified 1948 report. It reads: “To supply evidence useful in the litigation arising from an alleged loss of a fruit crop several years ago, a number of problems have been opened. Since excessive blood fluoride levels were reported in human residents of the same area, our principal effort has been devoted to describing the relationship of blood fluorides to toxic effects.” The litigation referred to was against the bomb program and its contractors and suppliers. The research was funded and directed by the defendants with a conflict of interest. If lower dose ranges were found hazardous, it might have opened the bomb program and its contractors to ad infinitum law suits, financial losses, and a public furor that cut shut down A-bomb production. Comments lawyer Kittrell: “This and other documents indicate that the University of Rochester’s fluoride research grew out of the New Jersey lawsuits and was performed in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb program for human injury. Studies undertaken for litigation purposes by the defendants would not be considered scientifically acceptable today, ” adds Kittrell, “because of their inherent bias to prove the chemical safe.”
- Proof of Fluoride’s Safety – So-called scientific proof for fluoride’s safety largely came from Program F and for its use in reducing tooth decay, per Dental School spokesperson William H. Bowen, MD. The main protagonist in the research was none other than Harold C. Hodge, proposing the fluoridating of public drinking water. The bomb program needed human studies, as they had need for such studies with plutonium. It was Harold Hodge who later came up with the idea that fluoride was safe in doses of 1ppm in the water supply.
- Pentagon Orchestrated One of First US Water Fluoridations - This was conducted in Newburgh, New York, offering research evidence for the effects of fluoridation as supposedly being safe in low doses for children’s bones and teeth. In 1943 a special New York State Health Department committee was set up to study adding fluoride to Newburgh’s drinking water. The chairman of the committee, Dr. Hodge again, directed the show. Other coordinators were Henry L. Barnett and John W. Fertig, both from the Pentagon circle which formed the Manhattan Project. Their military affiliations were kept under cover. Hodge was referred to as a pharmacologist, Barnett a pediatrician. David B. Ast was put in charge, chief dental officer of the State Health Department. Ast had participated in a secret wartime conference on fluoride held by the Manhattan Project, and worked side by side with Dr. Hodge on the investigation of NJ incident. The committee recommended that Newburgh be fluoridated and selected the medical studies to be done, and “provided expert guidance” for the experiment. The main inquiry question was: “Are there any cumulative effects — beneficial or otherwise, on tissues and organs other than the teeth…?” According to the declassified documents, this was also the most critical information needed to insulate the government and its contractors from further lawsuits. whether due to workers or communities exposed to fluoride during the Cold War.
- Ten Year Study – In May 1945, Newburgh’s water was fluoridated, and over the next decade residents were examined by the NY State Health Department. Program F conducted its own secret examinations, trying to determine the amount of fluoride Newburgh citizens could retain in their blood and tissues – without immediate and blatant signs of illness, again, vital information needed by the governments lawyers anticipating future lawsuits.”Possible toxic effects of fluoride were in the forefront of consideration,” the advisory committee stated. Health Department took part and sent blood samples to Program F, which were collected by Dr. David B. Overton, chief of pediatric studies. The final report, published in 1956 in the Journal of the American Dental Association, concluded “small concentrations” of fluoride were safe for U.S.citizens per the investigations summarized by Dr. Hodge.
- The crucial question, were negative findings doctored before publication in dental journals? What were the original classified texts of the findings? The transcript of one an important and secret conferences of WW2–on “fluoride metabolism”– is absent from the files. The conference was meant to next promote the safety of water fluoridation to the public. The key players were there, Harold Hodge, of course, and U.S. Public Health Service dentist H.Trendley Dean, known as the “father of fluoridation.” ” A 1944 WW2 Manhattan Project report on water fluoridation is also missing, plus a host of numerically consecutive documents, apparently still classified. Freedom of Information Act inquires by other authors have been stymied as to hundreds of classified fluoride reports.
- Cover Up Disclosed – Nevertheless, reporters made a discovery of a original classified fluoride safety study by A-bomb scientists. A censored version was published in the August 1948 Journal of the American Dental Association. Comparisons of the two versions show that highly damaging and frightening information, what would have turned dentists away from endorsing fluoride, was intentionally censored out. What was published involved a study of A-Bomb factory employees, conducted by dentists working for the Manhattan Project.The secret report showed most of the employed men had no teeth left as compared to the published version showing only only that the men had fewer cavities!The secret version also says the employee wore rubber boots since the fluoride fumes had disintegrated their toenails and may have similarly disintegrated their teeth, again, information left out of the published which oppositely concluded: “the men were unusually healthy, judged from both a medical and dental point of view.”After comparing the secret and published versions, Phyllis Mullenix commented, “This makes me ashamed to be a scientist.” Of other Cold War-era fluoride safety studies, she asks, “Were they all done like this?
- Fluoride, Teeth and the Atom Bomb
- Manhattan Projects Secret Wartime Conference on Fluoride Toxicity
- Deepwater Documents – Fluoride Poisoning Lawsuit Against the US Bomb Program
- The Fluoride Deception